Recovery of contractile and metabolic phenotypes in regenerating slow muscle after notexin-induced or crush injury

J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2003;24(7):421-9. doi: 10.1023/a:1027387501614.


The recovery of metabolic pathways after muscle damage has been poorly studied. We investigated the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform transitions and the recovery of citrate synthase (CS) activity, isoform distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in slow muscles after two types of injury. Muscle degeneration was induced in left soleus muscles of male Wistar rats by either notexin injection or crushing and the regenerative process was examined from 2 to 56 days after injury. Myosin transition occurred earlier after notexin than after crush injury. Fast-type IIx and more particularly type IIa MHC isoform disappeared by day 28 after notexin inoculation, while they were still detected long after in crushed muscles. A full recovery of both the CS activity and the specific activity of the H-LDH subunit was observed from day 42 in notexin-treated muscles, while values measured in crushed muscles remained significantly lower than in non-injured muscles (P < 0.05). The activity of the mitochondrial isoform of CK (mi-CK) was markedly affected by the type of injury (P < 0.001), and failed to reach normal levels after crush injury (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that the relatively rapid MHC transitions during regeneration contrasts with the slow recovery in the oxidative capacity. The recovery of the oxidative capacity remained incomplete after crush injury, a model of injury known to lead to disruption of the basal lamina and severe interruption of the vascular and nerve supply.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism
  • Creatine Kinase / metabolism
  • Elapid Venoms / toxicity*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction
  • Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch / cytology
  • Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch / enzymology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Myosin Heavy Chains / metabolism*
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Regeneration*


  • Elapid Venoms
  • Protein Isoforms
  • notexin
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase
  • Creatine Kinase
  • Myosin Heavy Chains