It has been demonstrated that distinct germline mutations within four connexin (Cx) genes, Cx26, Cx30, Cx31, and Cx30.3, underlie hearing loss and/or epidermal disease. Here, we describe two Cx26 mutations associated with skin disease. With the goal of understanding the mechanism(s) of Cx-associated human disease and how different mutations within the same Cx protein can result in different disorders, we performed a number of functional analyses investigating the cellular effects of disease-associated Cx mutations in keratinocytes and other cell types. Epidermal disease-associated proteins studied were primarily cytoplasmic with limited trafficking ability. FACS analysis of WT and mutant EGFP-Cx31 transfected keratinocytes revealed a high percentage of cell death associated with the skin disease-associated mutant Cx31 proteins.