Objective: We explored birth and parental risk factors for testicular cancer, examining risk factors for all testicular cancers and by histologic type.
Methods: We linked 1645 testicular cancer cases to live singleton birth certificates, selecting three random controls per case, matched by sex and date of birth. We used conditional multiple logistic regression to assess the mutually adjusted effects of parental and birth characteristics on testicular cancer risk.
Results: Sons of Black mothers had a lower risk than those of White mothers (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.12, 1.22). Increasing maternal age was associated with an increased risk in offspring (AOR=1.03 for each year of maternal age, 95% CI=1.01, 1.05). Sons of primiparous and low-multiparous women had increased risks compared to sons of high-multiparous women (AOR=1.22, 95% CI=1.04, 1.44; and AOR=1.31, 95% CI=1.12, 1.54, respectively). Among seminomas, term infants with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a higher risk compared to term, normal birth weight infants (AOR=2.69, 95% CI=1.40, 5.17; p-value for homogeneity=0.008).
Conclusions: Markers of higher estrogen exposure in the mother (age and parity) are associated with increased testicular cancer risk, and factors associated with fetal growth retardation may be associated with seminoma testicular cancer.