It has become clear in recent years that amino acids are not only important as substrates for various metabolic pathways but that they can also activate a nutrient-sensitive, mTOR-mediated, signalling pathway in synergy with insulin. Leucine is the most effective amino acid in this regard. The signalling pathway is antagonised by AMP-activated protein kinase. Amino acid signalling stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits (autophagic) proteolysis. In addition, many amino acids cause an increase in cell volume. Cell swelling per se stimulates synthesis of protein, glycogen, and lipid, in part by further stimulating signalling and in part by unrelated mechanisms. Amino acids also stimulate signalling in beta-cells and stimulate beta-cell growth and proliferation. This results in increased production of insulin, which enhances the anabolic (and anti-catabolic) properties of amino acids. Finally, amino acid-dependent signalling controls the production of leptin by adipocytes, and thus contributes to the regulation of appetite.