The status of an extra univalent, if it is a B chromosome or an achiasmatic Y chromosome, associating with the X chromosome in male meiosis of Cacopsylla peregrina (Frst.) (Homoptera, Psylloidea) was analysed. One extra univalent was present in all males collected from three geographically well separated populations, it was mitotically stable, and showed precise segregation from the X chromosome. These findings led us to propose that the univalent represents in fact a Y chromosome. The behaviour of the X and Y chromosomes during meiotic prophase suggested that their regular segregation was based on an achiasmatic segregation mechanism characterised by a 'touch and go' pairing of segregating chromosomes at metaphase I. To explain the formation of the achiasmatic Y within an insect group with X0 sex chromosome system, it was suggested that the Y chromosome has evolved from a mitotically stable B chromosome that was first integrated into an achiasmatic segregation system with the X chromosome, and has later become fixed in the karyotype as a Y chromosome.