Genomics has generated a wealth of data that is now being used to identify additional molecular alterations associated with cancer development. Mapping these alterations in the cancer genome is a critical first step in dissecting oncological pathways. There are two ways in which cancer research has changed in recent years. The first is the progressive elucidation of the genomic basis of cancer. This has been accomplished by the generation of detailed information using procedures such as global expression profiling. The second is a renewed emphasis on the role of epigenetic modifications in the etiology of cancer. Changes in DNA methylation and chromatin modification patterns are some of the epigenetic factors that cause gene deregulation in cancer. In this article, current and evolving genomic applications and the hypotheses underlying the modality for cancer therapy will be reviewed.