The pathogenetic findings of rhinopathies show an increase in infiltrating cells including eosinophils. RANTES is a beta chemokine in which the cysteines are adjacent (C-C), and it attracts and activates eosinophil. We hypothesize that RANTES is locally produced within the nasal polyp microenvironment and is responsible for the inflammatory cell recruitment present in nasal polyposis. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nasal polyps and mucosa from allergic and control, non-allergic patients for RANTES content. The relative levels of RANTES and MCP-1 protein in tissue homogenates were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for RANTES and MCP-1 mRNA expression were performed. The results indicate that RANTES expression and production increase in nasal mucosa (septal and turbinate portions) of allergic patients compared to the same mucosa in non-allergic patients. In allergic patients, RANTES levels of nasal polyp homogenates were nearly 12-fold higher than the RANTES levels in mucosa homogenate. In this study, we hypothesize that the particular anatomic structure and physiologic function of the turbinates are more involved in the pathogenesis of rhinitis and may undergo polypoid degeneration in allergic rhinitis than any other anatomical structure of the nose. Our data suggest that RANTES is more involved than MCP-1 in recruiting inflammatory cells in rhinological disease and may reflect the degree of local inflammation as consequence of the specific chemoattractant properties of RANTES. The level of RANTES in nasal polyps could be important in the development of the pathological state.