Jasmonic acid (JA) is a fatty acid-derived signaling molecule that regulates a broad range of plant defense responses against herbivores and some microbial pathogens. Molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have established that JA also performs a critical role in anther and pollen development but is not essential for other developmental aspects of the plant's life cycle. Here, we describe the phenotypic and molecular characterization of a sterile mutant of tomato (jasmonic acid-insensitive1 [jai1]) that is defective in JA signaling. Although the mutant exhibited reduced pollen viability, sterility was caused by a defect in the maternal control of seed maturation, which was associated with the loss of accumulation of JA-regulated proteinase inhibitor proteins in reproductive tissues. jai1 plants exhibited several defense-related phenotypes, including the inability to express JA-responsive genes, severely compromised resistance to two-spotted spider mites, and abnormal development of glandular trichomes. We demonstrate that these defects are caused by the loss of function of the tomato homolog of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), an F-box protein that is required for JA-signaled processes in Arabidopsis. These findings indicate that the JA/COI1 signaling pathway regulates distinct developmental processes in different plants and suggest a role for JA in the promotion of glandular trichome-based defenses.