Cephalometric evaluation in children presenting adapted swallowing during mixed dentition

Int J Orofacial Myology. 2003 Nov;29:29-41.


The tongue trust and anterior projection through the dental arcades during swallowing is known as Adapted Swallowing (AS) and is a common finding during mixed dentition. The authors studied the morphologic dentofacial characteristics through cephalometric measures in 38 girls and 35 boys, aged seven to nine years, presenting AS, as determined by the speech therapist evaluation. Cephalometric evaluation was obtained by Radiocef 2.0 software. The measurements studied were the mandibular and maxillary relations to the cranial base, the nasolabial angle, and the upper airway patency, as proposed by McNamara Jr (1984), and the convexity and facial axis angles and maxillary height from Ricketts (1960; 1981). Results, analyzed in relation to sex and racial group, showed an association of Class II facial convexity with the African Brazilian children with dark black skin. This classification does not reflect an abnormality as all African Brazilians studied were classified as class II, due to the fact that the standard measurements are based in the white American population. These findings point to the need of specific racial normative standard for evaluating orofacial and dental structures.

MeSH terms

  • Black People
  • Brazil
  • Cephalometry*
  • Child
  • Deglutition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Dentition, Mixed
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / diagnosis
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / ethnology
  • Maxillofacial Development*
  • Myofunctional Therapy
  • Nasal Obstruction / diagnosis
  • Patient Care Planning
  • Prognathism / diagnosis
  • Prognathism / ethnology*
  • Reference Values
  • Tongue Habits*