The human placenta is the interface between the mother and fetus in the uterus. Until recently it was generally believed that the uterus provides a protective environment for the fetus. It is now accepted that any chemical substance, including any therapeutic agent, administered to a mother is able to permeate across the placental barrier. Unfortunately, the placental transfer of substances and their distribution in the placenta is not well established. Understanding the structure of placental transporters and their function may serve as the ideal tool for drug development and the cure of mother and fetus during pregnancy.