Incidence, correlates, management, and clinical outcome of coronary perforation: analysis of 16,298 procedures

Am Heart J. 2004 Jan;147(1):140-5. doi: 10.1016/s0002-8703(03)00505-2.


Background: Coronary perforation is a serious but uncommon complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

Methods: We performed an analysis of the Mayo Clinic PCI database. Clinical records, procedural reports, and angiographic studies were reviewed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical, procedural, anatomic, and angiographic correlates of coronary perforation.

Results: A total of 16,298 PCI procedures were performed between January 1990 and December 2001. We identified 95 coronary perforations (0.58%; 95% CI, 0.47-0.71). The incidence of coronary perforation varied with time. Correlates of coronary perforation included the use of an atheroablative device and female sex. Twelve patients (12.6%) sustained an acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac tamponade developed in 11 patients (11.6%). Management strategies included reversal of heparin, pericardiocentesis, placement of a covered stent, and surgical repair. Seven patients died (7.4%).

Conclusions: Coronary perforation during PCI is rare, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The variable frequency of perforation may be explained by temporal variations in the use of atheroablative devices.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
  • Atherectomy, Coronary / adverse effects
  • Constriction
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy*
  • Coronary Vessels / injuries*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Prospective Studies
  • Protamines / therapeutic use
  • Regression Analysis
  • Stents / adverse effects
  • Wounds, Penetrating / epidemiology*
  • Wounds, Penetrating / etiology
  • Wounds, Penetrating / therapy


  • Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex
  • Protamines