Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (HC-CC) are known to arise occasionally in hepatitis-related cirrhosis, although their clinicopathological features remain unclarified. In this study, we characterized the ICC (9 cases) and ICC elements of HC-CC (11 cases) arising in nonbiliary cirrhosis. Thirty-three hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) associated with nonbiliary cirrhosis and 24 ICC without cirrhosis were used as controls. Prominent neutrophilic infiltration was frequent in ICC with cirrhosis (78%) and ICC elements of combined HC-CC (72%). Neutrophilic infiltration-related cytokines (interleukin 8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF], and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were expressed frequently and intensely in carcinoma cells of ICC with cirrhosis (40%, 80%, and 60%, respectively) and in ICC elements of the combined one (13%, 38%, and 63%, respectively). Interleukin 8 was expressed in 18% of ICC without cirrhosis, irrespective of neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophilic infiltration and expression of G-CSF and GM-CSF were in parallel (P < 0.05). G-CSF and GM-CSF mRNA were detected by RT-PCR in tissue specimens expressing G-CSF and GM-CSF at the protein level. Such neutrophilic infiltration and expression of G-CSF and GM-CSF were not evident in controls. The expressions of c-kit and c-Met, as a hematopoietic and hepatic stem cell marker, were seen frequently in ICC with cirrhosis (80% and 80%, respectively) and ICC elements of the combined one (63% and 50%, respectively). The present study revealed that the frequent expression of G-CSF and GM-CSF is a characteristic of ICC with cirrhosis and ICC in combined carcinoma, probably representing a phenotype of fetal hepatic parenchymal cell. The expression of these cytokines may be causally related to prominent neutrophilic infiltration.