To compare levels of biochemical markers in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) between patients with aqueductal stenosis (AS) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and relate these results to clinical outcome after surgery. Neurofilament light protein, tau protein, sulfatide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide PYY (NPY) and CSF/serum albumin ratio were measured in vCSF from 18 consecutive AS and 19 consecutive INPH patients. Clinical outcome was evaluated after surgery by standardized indices. The levels of markers were related to clinical outcome. No differences in any of the markers were found between AS and INPH patients. The concentration of sulfatide and albumin ratio correlated inversely with psychometric improvement, whilst VIP and NPY correlated inversely with improvement in alertness. The similar levels of biochemical markers in vCSF from AS and INPH patients indicate similarities in pathophysiology and turnover rate of vCSF despite differences in CSF dynamics. High albumin ratio and sulfatide concentrations in vCSF in hydrocephalus patients have negative implications for surgical outcome and might indicate concomitant cerebrovascular disorder.