Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Comparative Study
, 88 (1), 11-6

The Usefulness of Vistech and FACT Contrast Sensitivity Charts for Cataract and Refractive Surgery Outcomes Research

Comparative Study

The Usefulness of Vistech and FACT Contrast Sensitivity Charts for Cataract and Refractive Surgery Outcomes Research

K Pesudovs et al. Br J Ophthalmol.


Aim: To investigate the repeatability and sensitivity of two commonly used sine wave patch charts for contrast sensitivity (CS) measurement in cataract and refractive surgery outcomes.

Methods: The Vistech CS chart and its descendant, the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT), were administered in three experiments: (1) Post-LASIK and age matched normal subjects; (2) Preoperative cataract surgery and age matched normal subjects; (3) Test-retest repeatability data in normal subjects.

Results: Contrast sensitivity was similar between post-LASIK and control groups and between the Vistech and FACT charts. The percentage of subjects one month post-LASIK achieving the maximum score across spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 cycles per degree) were (50, 33, 13, 13, 0 respectively) for FACT, but only (0, 0, 13, 4, 0 respectively) for Vistech. A small number of cataract patients also registered the maximum score on the FACT, but up to 60% did not achieve the minimum score. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients varied from 0.28 to 0.64 for Vistech and 0.18 to 0.45 for FACT. Bland-Altman limits of agreement across spatial frequencies were between +/-0.30 and +/-0.85 logCS for Vistech, and +/-0.30 to +/-0.75 logCS for FACT.

Discussion: The Vistech was confirmed as providing poorly repeatable data. The FACT chart, likely because of a smaller step size, showed slightly better retest agreement. However, the reduced range of scores on the chart due to the smaller step size led to ceiling (post-LASIK) and floor (cataract) effects. These problems could mask subtle differences between groups of patients with near normal visual function as found post-refractive or cataract surgery. The Vistech and FACT CS charts are ill suited for refractive or cataract surgery outcomes research.


Figure 1
Figure 1
The range of contrast sensitivity over which the Vistech (black columns) and FACT (grey columns) charts can measure.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Log contrast sensitivity (mean, 95% confidence interval) for each of the five spatial frequencies (1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 cpd) of the Vistech and FACT charts. To aid clarity Vistech and FACT data are presented displaced either side of the actual spatial frequency. Data are shown for 27 normal subjects and the 27 post-LASIK subjects. FACT chart = open symbols (○, post-LASIK; □, normal subjects). Vistech = closed symbols (•, post-LASIK; ▪¦, normal subjects).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 31 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types