Objective: To study that low-intensity microwave whether or not enhances the genotoxic effects of mitomycin C(MMC) on human lymphocytes.
Methods: Single strand DNA breaks and chromosomal aberrations were measured by comet assay and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus(CBMN) test in vitro when human lymphocytes were exposed to 2,450-MHz microwave (5.0 mW/cm2) alone and in combination with mitomycin C.
Results: In the comet assay, the average comet lengths of microwave group[(29.1 +/- 8.1) micron in male and (25.9 +/- 7.5) micron in female] were not significantly different from those of control groups [(26.3 +/- 6.6) and (24.1 +/- 4.3) micron respectively] (P > 0.05). The average comet lengths of MMC group(0.0125, 0.0250, 0.0500, 0.1000 microgram/ml) were significantly longer than those of control groups (P < 0.01) and were increased with the dose of MMC. The average comet lengths of microwave combined with MMC (MW + MMC) also were increased with the doses of MMC and were significantly longer than those of control groups (P < 0.01). When MMC was > or = 0.0250 microgram/ml, microwave and MMC synergistically increased the single strand DNA breaks. In the micronucleus test, the average micronucleus rates of microwave groups were not higher than those of control groups (P > 0.05). The average micronucleus rates of MMC groups and MW + MMC groups were significantly higher than those of control groups (P < 0.01) when MMC was > or = 0.0500 microgram/ml. The average micronucleus rates of MW + MMC groups seemed higher than those of corresponding MMC groups, however the difference was not significant (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Low-intensity(2,450-MHz) microwave did not induce DNA and chromosome damages on human lymphocytes, but enhanced the effects of DNA breaks induced by MMC.