To minimize antibiotic resistance, pharmacists increasingly are becoming involved in antibiotic surveillance, formulation of antibiotic use policies, and day-to-day control of problematic antibiotic use. Population-based antibiotic surveillance has become common with the proliferation of electronic databases. The most widely applied measure of antibiotic consumption is the defined daily dose/1000 patient days. Most studies correlating antibiotic consumption with resistance have focused on antibiogram-related end points; antibiogram data generally reflect institutional nosocomial infection patterns. Most study designs have been derived from traditional epidemiology such as case-control with regression modeling or simple linear regression; however, these methods have limitations. Several experimental designs show promise. Many historical-control studies, including a multicentered study, suggest that population-based antibiotic surveillance and policy intervention can decrease antibiotic resistance in hospitals. Further research on the relationships among antibiotic surveillance, structured antibiotic policy interventions, and other microbiologic, patient-oriented, and economic end points is needed.