The expression and activation of serine/threonine protein kinase, Akt, in leiomyoma and in adjacent myometrium of human uteri was studied parallel with the changes of Bcl-2, Bax proteins, estrogen and progesterone receptors during menstrual cycle and early stage of the menopause. Abundant expression of Akt protein was detected in the studied tissues during menstrual cycle, the rate of increase was higher in leiomyoma than in corresponding myometrium. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor and of Bcl-2 protein changed parallel with that of Akt protein. The level of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt(473)) was seen only in leiomyoma samples from the growing period of tumors. At early stage of menopause levels of all studied proteins were lower than that in the menstrual cycle with the exception of Bax protein expression, which was high in leiomyoma. Our data suggest the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in the pathomechanism of leiomyoma.