Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have both been implicated to have roles in tumour angiogenesis. In the present retrospective study, serum VEGF and bFGF from patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analysed before, during and after treatment. Seventy-three patients and a total of 460 serum samples were analysed for VEGF and 443 serum samples were analysed for bFGF. Pre-treatment bFGF levels in patients with normal platelet counts, were correlated to poorer survival, P-value = 0.047. During chemotherapy, each rise of one unit bFGF corresponded to a hazard ratio of 4.06 (P=0.022). In patients with normal platelet counts, VEGF levels after radiotherapy significantly correlated to good prognosis (P=0.023), during radiotherapy VEGF levels indicated the same correlation (P=0.085). We conclude that serum VEGF and especially bFGF are of clinical interest as prognostic factors, especially in patients presenting with normal platelet counts.