The ins and outs of transcriptional control: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in development and disease

Trends Genet. 2004 Jan;20(1):4-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2003.11.007.


Recent findings relating to SOX transcription factors indicate that defects in organogenesis can be caused not only by impairment of the biochemical properties of transcription factors but also, in some cases, by deficient nuclear import. In addition, experimentally interfering with the nuclear export signals of some SOX factors has now been found to cause developmental defects. Controlling the balance of nuclear import and export might be a common means by which transcription factor activity can be regulated during development, and defects in these processes might underlie a broader spectrum of inherited developmental disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus*
  • Animals
  • Disorders of Sex Development
  • Female
  • Genes, sry
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Multigene Family
  • Mutation
  • SOX9 Transcription Factor
  • Sex Differentiation
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • SOX9 Transcription Factor
  • SOX9 protein, human
  • Sox9 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors