Overexpression of iNOS and down-regulation of BMPs-2, 4 and 7 in retinoic acid induced cleft palate formation

Histol Histopathol. 2004 Jan;19(1):95-104. doi: 10.14670/HH-19.95.


The present work studied the induction of cleft palate formation in embryos developed from pregnant BALB/c mice treated orally with retinoic acid (RA). Previous studies on mature somatic cell types showed that RA exerted inhibitory effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production. For the first time, our study has shown that RA actually stimulates significant expression of iNOS at specific zones of the affected embryonic palatal tissues at three consecutive stages, from gestation day 13 (GD13) to day 16 (GD16). Enzymatically, iNOS facilitates intracellular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. When NO reacts with reactive superoxides it may result in irreparable cell injury. NO was also reported to induce apoptosis in some mammalian cell systems. Based on our findings, we propose that such an increase in NO production might be associated with apoptosis in the embryonic palatal tissues in the RA-treated mice. The detrimental effects of NO resulted in a reduction in proliferating palatal cells and therefore disturbed the normal plasticity of the palatal shelves. With iNOS overexpression, our findings also showed that there was significant concomitant down-regulation in the expressions of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) -2, 4, and 7 with regional variations particularly in the palatal mesenchymal cells for those embryos developing cleft palate. Since specific spatial and temporal expressions of BMPs -2, 4, and 7 are critical during normal palatal morphogenesis, any deficiency in the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction may result in retarding growth at the embryonic palatal shelves. Taken together, our study has demonstrated cleft palate formation in the BALB/c embryos involved overexpression of iNOS and down-regulation of BMPs-2, 4 and 7.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cleft Palate / chemically induced
  • Cleft Palate / embryology
  • Cleft Palate / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / drug effects*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Teratogens / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Distribution / drug effects
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*


  • Bmp4 protein, mouse
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Teratogens
  • Tretinoin
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse