Background: Variations in the temporal distribution and risk factors for omphalocele and gastroschisis have been suggested although results have not been conclusive. This study examines the trend and risk factors for both conditions among live births in New York State.
Methods: Analysis of surveillance data from the New York Congenital Malformation Registry for the years 1992-1999.
Results: Five hundred and ninety-five (595) infants with either omphalocele (287) or gastroschisis (308) were identified. It appeared that the prevalence of gastroschisis was rising from 1992-1999, while prevalence of omphalocele was decreasing. Cases of gastroschisis were clustered among younger mothers while the maternal age distribution among omphalocele infants was U-shaped. As compared to Whites, Black infants were more likely to present with omphalocele (OR = 1.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.28-2.33) and Hispanic infants with gastroschisis (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12-2.00). For both anomalies, residents of rural New York were significantly at higher risk than those living in urban New York. Twenty-three chromosomal aberrations were detected, all among omphalocele babies. Infant survival was substantially greater among gastroschisis (92%) as compared to omphalocele newborn (81%)[p < 0.0001].
Conclusions: Prevalence of gastroschisis has been on the rise while that of omphalocele has been declining in New York State. Geographical and racial/ethnic variations were observed, further confirming the notion of different etiologies for the two congenital anomalies.