The impact of exercise, physiotherapy, and combinations of exercise and physiotherapy upon sputum expectoration were compared in 18 adults with cystic fibrosis. Any treatment which included physiotherapy either alone or in combination with exercise produced a significantly higher sputum weight during treatment time than did exercise alone (P < 0.01). This trend was true for both high (greater than 35 g in 24 h) and low (less than 35 g in 24 h) sputum producers (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in FEV1 and FVC 30 min after any treatment. The treatment option preferred by patients to continue at home was exercise followed by physiotherapy (P < 0.001). Exercise alone was less productive than the other three modalities in clearing sputum (P < 0.001).