Multiple response elements and differential p53 binding control Perp expression during apoptosis

Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Dec;1(14):1048-57.


The p53 tumor suppressor gene responds to cellular stress by activating either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. A growing number of target genes involved in each of these pathways have been identified. However, the mechanism by which the apoptosis versus arrest decision is made remains to be elucidated. Perp is a proapoptotic target gene of p53 expressed to high levels in apoptotic cells compared with those undergoing cell cycle arrest. This pattern of expression is unusual among p53 target genes, many of which are induced to similar levels during arrest and apoptosis. Here, we describe the regulation of the Perp gene by p53 through at least three response elements in the Perp promoter and first intron. These sites are occupied in vivo in E1A-expressing mouse embryo fibroblasts undergoing apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest, in contrast to the p21 5' response element, which is occupied during both. The apoptosis-deficient p53 point mutant, p53V143A, displays a selective deficit in binding to the Perp elements, demonstrating that p53 can distinguish between Perp and p21 at the level of DNA binding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the selective expression of Perp during apoptosis and may provide a useful model for studying the p53-dependent cell cycle arrest versus apoptosis decision.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / immunology
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Protein Binding
  • Response Elements*
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism*


  • Chromatin
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Perp protein, mouse
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53