Gaucher disease is an inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism resulting from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The majority of the patients (with type I disease) do not have primary central nervous system involvement. However, several studies have noted that secondary neurological complications may develop as a consequence of nerve root or spinal cord compression following vertebral body collapse or, for those with coagulation disorders, bleeding within confined compartments. An epidemiological survey was conducted to ascertain the incidence of neurological symptoms in patients with Gaucher disease type I (GD I). The survey included a review of the patients' medical history, an estimate of Gaucher disease severity according to a modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI), and completion of a questionnaire regarding their neurological status and Quality of Life (QoL) according to the SF-36 Health Survey. Seventy-three per cent of respondents were found to have experienced at least one neurological complaint in the preceding 3 months. Adult patients with Gaucher disease often have other medical problems unrelated to their primary diagnosis. Thus, the high incidence of neurological complaints in these patients may be attributable to concurrent medical problems and/or side-effects from concomitant medications. These issues may influence patients' assessment of their disease severity and/or response to treatment.