Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) is a key tool for comparative proteomics research. With its ability to separate complex protein mixtures with high resolution, 2-D GE is a technique commonly employed for protein profiling studies. Significant improvements have been made in 2-D GE technology with the development of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), where proteins are first labelled with one of three spectrally resolvable fluorescent cyanine dyes before being separated over first and second dimensions according to their charge and size, respectively. When used in conjunction with automated analysis packages, this multiplexing approach can accurately and reproducibly quantify protein expression for control and experimental groups. Differentially expressed proteins can be subsequently identified by mass spectrometric methods. Here, we describe the successful application and optimisation of 2-D DIGE technology for human postmortem brain studies. This technology, especially when coupled with other functional genomics approaches, such as transcriptomics and metabolomics studies, will enhance our current understanding of human disease and lead to new therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities.