The integrated biomass beneath the surface horizon in unsaturated soils is large and potentially important in nutrient and carbon cycling. Compared to surface soils, the ecology of these subsurface soils is weakly understood, particularly in terms of the composition of bacterial communities. We compared soil bacterial communities along two vertical transects by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLPs) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to determine how surface and deep bacterial communities differ. DNA yield from soils collected from two Mediterranean grassland transects decreased exponentially from the surface to 4 m deep. Richness, as assessed by the number of peaks obtained after restriction with HhaI, MspI, RsaI, or HaeIII, and diversity, as assessed by the Shannon diversity indices, were lowest in the deepest sample. Lower diversity at depth is consistent with species-energy theory, which would predict relatively low diversity in the low organic matter horizons. Principal components analysis suggested that, in terms of HhaI and HaeIII generated TRFLPs, bacterial communities differed between depths. The most abundant amplicons cloned from the deepest sample contained sequences with restriction sites consistent with the largest peaks observed in TRFLPs generated from deep samples. These more abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) appeared related to Pseudomonas and Variovorax. Several OTUs were more related to each other than any previously described ribotypes. These OTUs showed similarity to bacteria from the divisions Actinobacteria and Firmicutes.