In a pilot study, the metabolic effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus intensive subcutaneous insulin therapy (ISIT) started at diagnosis in patients with Type 1 diabetes and continued for a 2-year period were evaluated and compared. Twenty-three patients (between 12 and 35 years old, mean +/- SD 18.4 +/- 9 years) were randomized into two treatment groups (CSII vs. ISIT), and both received supplemental nicotinamide (NA), 25 mg/kg of body weight. CSII was started immediately after admission to the hospital. Parameters of metabolic control [insulin dose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and C-peptide] were evaluated for a 2-year follow-up period. Data are presented for a total of 19 patients who remained in the study for its duration. Two years after diagnosis, mean +/- SD HbA1c was 6.3 +/- 0.5% and 6.2 +/- 0.3% for the CSII and ISIT groups, respectively (p=not significant). Compared with baseline values, an increase of baseline C-peptide of 38% for the CSII group and 27% for the ISIT group was observed; however, the difference between the groups was not significant. The insulin requirement for the entire duration of the study, but not at entry and 3 months, was significantly higher in CSII compared with ISIT patients (0.62 +/- 0.4 IU/kg/day vs. 0.3 +/- 0.4 IU/kg/day, respectively; p<0.01). After trial completion patients on CSII continued with this mode of therapy. Implementation of CSII as well as ISIT at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes and continuation for 2 years thereafter achieved similar and optimal metabolic control, but more insulin was required with the CSII group. Both types of intensive insulin therapy combined with NA are able to preserve C-peptide secretion or even increase baseline levels for up to 2 years after diagnosis.