MINMOD Millennium: a computer program to calculate glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003;5(6):1003-15. doi: 10.1089/152091503322641060.


The Bergman Minimal Model enables estimation of two key indices of glucose/insulin dynamics: glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity. In this paper we describe MINMOD Millennium, the latest Windows-based version of minimal model software. Extensive beta testing of MINMOD Millennium has shown that it is user-friendly, fully automatic, fast, accurate, reproducible, repeatable, and highly concordant with past versions of MINMOD. It has a simple interface, a comprehensive help system, an input file editor, a file converter, an intelligent processing kernel, and a file exporter. It provides publication-quality charts of glucose and insulin and a table of all minimal model parameters and their error estimates. In contrast to earlier versions of MINMOD and some other minimal model programs, Millennium provides identified estimates of insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness for almost every subject.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test / methods*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Software*
  • User-Computer Interface


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin