Small GTPase rab proteins play an important role in various aspects of membrane traffic, including cargo selection, vesicle budding, vesicle motility, tethering, docking, and fusion. Recent data suggest also that rabs, and their divalent effector proteins, organize organelle subdomains and as such may define functional organelle identity. Most rabs are ubiquitously expressed. However, some rabs are preferentially expressed in epithelial cells where they appear intimately associated with the epithelial-specific transcytotic pathway and/or tight junctions. This review discusses the role of rabs in epithelial membrane transport.