Ebola virus infection causes hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no vaccines or therapies approved for human use. Outbreaks of Ebola virus have been infrequent, largely confined to remote locations in Africa and quarantine of sick patients has been effective in controlling epidemics. In the past, this small global market has generated little commercial interest for developing an Ebola virus vaccine. However, heightened awareness of bioterrorism advanced by the events surrounding September 11, 2001, concomitant with knowledge that the former Soviet Union was evaluating Ebola virus as a weapon, has dramatically changed perspectives regarding the need for a vaccine against Ebola virus. This review takes a brief historic look at attempts to develop an efficacious vaccine, provides an overview of current vaccine candidates and highlights strategies that have the greatest potential for commercial development.