Purpose of review: This review is designed to update the reader on the current state of nasal endoscopy in the control of epistaxis. Recent articles are reviewed and demonstrate recent developments and results.
Recent findings: The use of endoscopy for control of anterior and posterior epistaxis is beneficial, with less morbidity then external procedures or Caldwell Luc approaches. Postoperative endoscopic sinus surgery epistaxis is easily treated with endoscopic visualization. Epistaxis secondary to tumors can be controlled via an endoscopic approach. Patients with Osler-Weber-Rendu disease (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) can have more selective laser control of telangiectasia using endoscopic technique. Endoscopic septodermoplasty is straight-forward and avoids external incisions. Following a protocol for control of hemorrhage from an injured carotid artery during endoscopic sinus surgery, patients can survive with good function.
Summary: Endoscopic visualization and techniques are the state of the art for surgical control of epistaxis. Alternatives are embolization or external/Caldwell-Luc approaches.