Objectives: We examined gender differences in the effects of unemployment on mental health and assessed whether such effects are associated with interactions among gender, family roles, and social class.
Methods: Our analysis included 3881 employed and 638 unemployed workers, aged 25 to 64 years, interviewed in the 1994 Catalonian Health Survey.
Results: Unemployment had more of an effect on the mental health of men (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30, 3.87) than on that of women (age-adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.06). Gender differences in effects were related to family responsibilities and social class.
Conclusions: Understanding the effects of unemployment on mental health requires consideration of the interactions among gender, family responsibilities, and social class.