Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Effective treatments for both diseases have been shown to alter cytokines in the central nervous system and in activated mononuclear cells. EAE is an animal model that mimics many aspects of multiple sclerosis, and has been widely used to study the mechanisms of disease and therapeutic approaches to multiple sclerosis. Cytokines play an important role in regulation of disease expression in EAE, and in tolerance to disease induction. In this review, we will summarize the current findings on the role of cytokine shifts in the induction of tolerance in EAE. In addition, we will discuss modulation of EAE by altered expression of members of the cytokineregulated Jak/STAT intracellular signaling pathway.