In the present study 161 Japanese father/son haplotype transfers in 147 pedigrees were analyzed at 14 Y-STRs with two multiplex PCR-based typing systems. Five isolated single repeat mutations were identified at the DYS389I, DYS439, Y-GATA-H4, DYS389II and DYS391 loci, and a pedigree showing triple alleles at the DYS385 locus (a duplicate locus) without allelic discrepancy between the father and son was also observed. The overall mutation rate estimated across the 14 Y-STRs in the Japanese population was 0.22%/locus/meiosis (95% C.I. 0.09-0.51%). This rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) from those of autosomal STRs and Y-STRs in other populations, including German, Austrian, Polish and Norwegian populations. Furthermore, 138 haplotypes were identified in 147 pedigrees with a haplotype diversity value of 0.9983. Therefore, a combination of the two systems should permit effective analysis with sufficient discriminatory power.