Maxillofacial fractures sustained during sports played with a ball

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jan;97(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2003.10.008.


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of maxillofacial fractures caused by various sports played with a ball to better understand the nature of these fractures. Study design Retrospective study was carried out using records from 100 patients treated between 1986-2002. Age and sex, etiology, and site of the fracture, yearly and monthly distribution of the fractures, and treatment modality were analyzed.

Results: The fractures mostly resulted from baseball (44%), followed by rugby (28%) and soccer (18%). The highest incidence was in the 10- to 19-year age-group with male propensity. The most common cause of the fractures was impact against another player (43%). The majority of the patients suffered from mandibular fractures (56%), followed by midface (31%) and alveolar fractures (12%). Mandibular angle, zygoma, and zygomatic arch fractures were prominent for rugby fractures. A yearly comparison of the fracture incidence showed a gradual decrease over the 16-year period. Fractures had a peak incidence in autumn. 55% of the patients were treated surgically. Surgical intervention was mostly needed for patients sustaining fractures during soccer (72.2%).

Conclusions: Among ball-related sports, baseball is responsible for most of the maxillofacial fractures, but, although the incidence is not that high, soccer-related fractures may be more severe due to the nature of this sport.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Alveolar Process / injuries
  • Athletic Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Baseball / injuries
  • Child
  • Facial Bones / injuries*
  • Female
  • Football / injuries
  • Fracture Fixation / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Mandibular Fractures / epidemiology
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Seasons
  • Sex Factors
  • Skull Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Soccer / injuries
  • Zygomatic Fractures / epidemiology