Evaluation and management of medically unexplained physical symptoms

Neurologist. 2004 Jan;10(1):18-30. doi: 10.1097/01.nrl.0000106921.76055.24.


Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and related syndromes are common in medical care and the general population, are associated with extensive morbidity, and have a large impact on functioning. Much of medical practice emphasizes specific pharmacological and surgical intervention for discrete disease states. Medical science, with its emphasis on identifying etiologically meaningful diseases comprised of homogeneous groups of patients, has split MUPS into a number of diagnostic entities or syndromes, each with its own hypothesized pathogenesis. However, research suggests these syndromes may be more similar than different, sharing extensive phenomenological overlap and similar risk factors, treatments, associated morbidities, and prognoses. Examples of syndromes consisting of MUPS include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, multiple chemical sensitivities, somatoform disorders, and 'Gulf War Syndrome.'

Review summary: This paper is a narrative review of the increasing body of evidence suggesting that MUPS and related syndromes are common, disabling, and costly. It emphasizes that MUPS occur along a continuum of symptom count, severity, and duration and may be divided into acute, subacute (or recurrent), and chronic types. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors influence the natural history of MUPS.

Conclusions: Effective symptom management involves collaborative doctor-patient approaches for identification of problems based on a combination of medical importance and patient readiness to initiate behavioral change, negotiated treatment goals and outcomes, gradual physical activation and exercise prescription. Additionally, efforts should be made to teach and support active rather than passive coping with the symptoms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic / therapy*
  • Female
  • Fibromyalgia / diagnosis*
  • Fibromyalgia / epidemiology
  • Fibromyalgia / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medicine
  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity / diagnosis*
  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity / epidemiology
  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity / therapy*
  • Patient Care Team
  • Persian Gulf Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Persian Gulf Syndrome / therapy*
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Psychotherapy
  • Sex Distribution
  • Specialization