Overcoming immune tolerance of tumor angiogenesis should be useful for adjuvant therapy of cancer. We hypothesized that vaccination with autologous endothelium would induce an autoimmune response targeting tumor angiogenesis. To test this concept, we immunized BALB/c mice with a vaccine of glutaraldehyde-fixed murine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEs) in a lung metastasis model of Colon-26 cancer. Vaccination with autologous HSEs induced both preventive and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity that significantly inhibited the development of metastases. ELISA revealed an immunoglobulin response involving IgM and IgG subclasses. These antibodies had a strong affinity for antigens of both murine and human endothelium, and lyzed endothelial cells in the CDC assay. Flow-cytometry and chromium-release cytotoxicity assay revealed a specific CTL response against endothelial cells, which were lyzed in an effector: target ratio-dependent manner. Neither antibodies nor CTLs reacted with Colon-26. The effect of autologous HSEs was more pronounced than that of xenogeneic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which were tested in the same experimental setting. Our results suggest that vaccination with autologous endothelium can overcome peripheral tolerance of self-angiogenic antigens and therefore should be useful for adjuvant immunotherapy of cancer.