We have evaluated cell survival, apoptosis, and cell cycle responses in a panel of DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colon and prostate cancer cell lines after alkylation and UV-C damage. We show that although these MMR-deficient cells tolerate alkylation damage, they are as sensitive to UV-C-induced damage as are the MMR-proficient cells. MMR-proficient cells arrest in the S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and initiate apoptosis following alkylation damage, whereas MMR-deficient cells continue proliferation. However, two prostate cancer cell lines that are MMR-deficient surprisingly arrest transiently in S-G2 after alkylation damage. Progression through G1 phase initially depends on the expression of one or more of the D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and/or D3). Analysis of cyclin D1 expression shows an initial MMR-independent decrease in the protein level after alkylation as well as UV-C damage. At later time points, however, only DNA damage-arrested cells showed decreased cyclin D1 levels irrespective of MMR status, indicating that reduced cyclin D1 could be a result of a smaller fraction of cells being in G1 phase rather than a result of an intact MMR system. Finally, we show that cyclin D1 is degraded by the proteasome in response to alkylation damage.