A three-dimensional kinematic and dynamic study of the lower limb during the stance phase of gait using an homogeneous matrix approach

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004 Jan;51(1):21-7. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2003.820357.


This paper presents a method to analyze three dimensional kinematics and dynamics of lower limb during walking. The proposed method is based on a homogeneous matrix concept, derived from robotics and using compact, expressive notation convenient for computer applications. The major advantage of this method is that no hypothesis is required on the joint model, which makes it applicable to complex and pathologic joints. Kinematic data are computed from 3-D trajectories of markers collected by a motion analysis system. External forces applied on the leg are measured synchronously during the stance phase of gait. Angular velocity components obtained using the homogeneous matrix method are displayed for three subjects and compared with those obtained from the same experimental data using a helical axis method. Then, intersegmental moments calculated from the inverse dynamic part of the homogeneous matrix method are shown on the same subjects. Kinematic results indicate that there are no significant differences between the methods, thus demonstrating the reproducibility of the stance phase of gait in the sagittal plane. Use of this synthetic homogeneous method developed for both kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies demonstrates good promise for applications in biomechanics.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms*
  • Ankle Joint / physiology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena / methods
  • Computer Simulation
  • Gait / physiology*
  • Hip Joint / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiology*
  • Lower Extremity / physiology*
  • Male
  • Models, Biological*
  • Posture / physiology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Rotation
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Torque