A new method for characterization of atrial arrhythmias is presented which is based on the time-frequency distribution of an atrial electrocardiographic signal. A set of parameters are derived which describe fundamental frequency, amplitude, shape, and signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses frequency-shifting of an adaptively updated spectral profile, representing the shape of the atrial waveforms, in order to match each new spectrum of the distribution. The method tracks how well the spectral profile fits each spectrum as well as if a valid atrial signal is present. The results are based on the analysis of a learning database with signals from 40 subjects, of which 24 have atrial arrhythmias, and an evaluation database with 211 patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. It is shown that the method robustly estimates fibrillation frequency and amplitude and produces spectral profiles with narrower peaks and more discernible harmonics when compared to the conventional power spectrum. The results suggest that a rather strong correlation exist between atrial fibrillation frequency and f wave shape. The developed set of parameters may be used as a basis for automated classification of different atrial rhythms.