Effects of chlorine on the decrease of estrogenic chemicals

Water Res. 2004 Feb;38(3):733-9. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.010.


The effects of chlorination on the elimination of three estrogenic chemicals such as 17beta-estradiol, nonylphenol and bis-phenol A were investigated using yeast two-hybrid assay (YTA), estrogen receptor (ER) competition assay (ER-CA), and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The results of YTA, ER-CA and the analysis of LC/MS indicated that the estrogenic activity of the above-mentioned three endocrine disruptors were significantly reduced as a result of chlorination. The decrease in estrogenic activity paralleled a decrease in estrogenic chemicals under the influence of free chlorine. One common characteristic of estrogenic chemicals is the presence of a phenolic ring. Considering that a phenolic ring is likely to undergo some sort of transformation in an aqueous chlorination solution, the above-mentioned results may be applied to the rest of the estrogenic chemicals in natural waters.

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Biological Assay
  • Chlorine / chemistry*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Estradiol / chemistry*
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / chemistry*
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Phenols / chemistry*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / analysis
  • Receptors, Estrogen / physiology
  • Water Purification / methods*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal
  • Phenols
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Chlorine
  • Estradiol
  • nonylphenol
  • bisphenol A