Apoptosis in tissues is induced by different kind of signals including endogenous aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal. The accumulation rate of aldehydes in the cell is affected by conditions of oxidative stress. In the cell, aldehydes can be metabolized by various isoforms of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. There is evidence suggesting that the catalytic properties of these enzymes change during ontogenesis, and that aging is accompanied by their reduced activities. These functional changes may contribute substantially to the alteration in the organism sensitivity to damaging action of stress factors during aging, to age-related modulation of the action of endogenous aldehydes as a signal for apoptosis, and finally, to the origin of diseases associated with aging. In this context, the stimulation of enzymes' expression, and the activation of the catalytic properties of enzymes responsible for catabolism of endogenous aldehydes could become a perspective direction in increasing the organism resistance to the action of damaging factors during aging.