Morphology and monoaminergic modulation of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone-like immunoreactive neurons in the lobster nervous system

J Neurocytol. 2003 Mar;32(3):253-63. doi: 10.1023/B:NEUR.0000010084.10383.3b.


Neuronal somata located near branch points in the second thoracic nerve roots of the lobster are immunoreactive for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH)-like peptides, a family of putative stress hormones. We have employed intracellular dye injection, immunostaining, and confocal imaging to observe the anatomy of these root neurons, which are morphologically diverse and dye coupled. Some root neurons contribute to neurosecretory structures at the points of exit of the root from the nerve cord. Other CNS-projecting root neurons send projections into the T5-A1 interganglionic connectives. Neurosecretory elements of the serotonin (5HT) and octopamine (OCT) systems, implicated in postural control and aggression, terminate densely in the vicinity of the second thoracic root neurons. We have confirmed by double immunostaining for 5HT and CHH-like peptides that the endings of the 5HT neurons are in close apposition to root neurons in the superficial regions of the root. We have also extended previous studies documenting electrophysiological responses of the root neurons to 5HT or OCT. Bath-applied 5HT and OCT inhibit the spontaneous bursting activity of root neurons at concentrations higher than 100 nM. The root neurons desensitize to the persistent presence of high concentrations of 5HT, but not OCT, in the bath. Nanomolar concentrations of OCT, but not 5HT have an excitatory effect on the spontaneous bursting activity of root neurons. This region of the lobster nervous system is of continuing interest, as identified neurons of three neuromodulatory systems implicated in stress and aggression converge and interact at the level of identified neurons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / drug effects
  • Action Potentials / physiology
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology
  • Central Nervous System / cytology*
  • Central Nervous System / drug effects
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / cytology
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / drug effects
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / metabolism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Invertebrate Hormones / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Nephropidae / cytology*
  • Nephropidae / metabolism
  • Neural Pathways / cytology*
  • Neural Pathways / drug effects
  • Neural Pathways / metabolism
  • Neurons, Efferent / cytology
  • Neurons, Efferent / drug effects
  • Neurons, Efferent / metabolism
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism
  • Octopamine / metabolism
  • Octopamine / pharmacology
  • Presynaptic Terminals / drug effects
  • Presynaptic Terminals / metabolism
  • Presynaptic Terminals / ultrastructure
  • Serotonin / metabolism
  • Serotonin / pharmacology
  • Spinal Nerve Roots / cytology
  • Spinal Nerve Roots / drug effects
  • Spinal Nerve Roots / metabolism
  • Synaptic Transmission / drug effects
  • Synaptic Transmission / physiology


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Invertebrate Hormones
  • Neuropeptides
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Octopamine
  • Serotonin