CEACAM6 gene silencing impairs anoikis resistance and in vivo metastatic ability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

Oncogene. 2004 Jan 15;23(2):465-73. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1207036.


Anoikis is the apoptotic response induced in normal cells by inadequate or inappropriate adhesion to substrate. It is postulated that resistance to anoikis facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member overexpressed in a number of human cancers and implicated in anoikis resistance. We tested the effect of CEACAM6 gene silencing on anoikis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Anoikis was induced in PANC1, Capan2, MiaPaCa2 and Mia(AR) (a MiaPaCa2-derived anoikis-resistant subline) by culture in poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-coated wells. Anoikis was quantified by YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The role of caspase activation was determined using fluorometric profiling and the caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk). CEACAM6 expression was suppressed by RNA interference. Using a nude mouse orthotopic xenograft model, we assessed the effect of this treatment on in vivo metastatic ability. Anoikis resistance was associated with increased CEACAM6 expression. CEACAM6-specific short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA), but not control siRNA, increased susceptibility to caspase-mediated anoikis, an effect abrogated by Z-VAD-fmk, and decreased Akt phosphorylation (Ser-473) under anchorage-independent conditions. CEACAM6 gene silencing reversed the acquired anoikis resistance of Mia(AR) and inhibited its in vivo metastatic ability. CEACAM6 warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / enzymology
  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Animals
  • Anoikis*
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Caspases / metabolism
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / deficiency*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Gene Silencing*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Metastasis*
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic / metabolism


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • CEACAM6 protein, human
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic
  • Oncogene Protein v-akt
  • Caspases