Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991-2000

Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;38(3):311-20. doi: 10.1086/380637. Epub 2004 Jan 14.


Candida species are among the most common bloodstream pathogens in the United States, where the emergence of azole-resistant Candida glabrata and Candida krusei are major concerns. Recent comprehensive longitudinal data from Europe are lacking. We conducted a nationwide survey of candidemia during 1991-2000 in 17 university and university-affiliated hospitals representing 79% of all tertiary care hospital beds in Switzerland. The number of transplantations and bloodstream infections increased significantly (P<.001). A total of 1137 episodes of candidemia were observed: Candida species ranked seventh among etiologic agents (2.9% of all bloodstream isolates). The incidence of candidemia was stable over a 10-year period. C. albicans remained the predominant Candida species recovered (66%), followed by C. glabrata (15%). Candida tropicalis emerged (9%), the incidence of Candida parapsilosis decreased (1%), and recovery of C. krusei remained rare (2%). Fluconazole consumption increased significantly (P<.001). Despite increasing high-risk activities, the incidence of candidemia remained unchanged, and no shift to resistant species occurred.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Candidiasis / drug therapy
  • Candidiasis / epidemiology*
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology*
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Data Collection
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Fluconazole / therapeutic use
  • Fungemia / drug therapy
  • Fungemia / epidemiology*
  • Hospitals, University
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Switzerland / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Fluconazole