Two months of treatment with rifampin-pyrazinamide (RZ) and 9 months of treatment with isoniazid are both recommended for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in adults without human immunodeficiency virus infection, but the relative cost-effectiveness of these 2 treatments is unknown. We used a Markov model to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the impact on life expectancy and costs based on the results of a recent clinical trial that compared the rates of adverse events and completion of the 2 treatment regimens. Compared with no treatment, both regimens increased life expectancy by 1.2 years, but RZ cost 273 dollars more per patient. Sensitivity analyses showed that, assuming equal efficacy between the 2 regimens, there was no threshold completion rate for RZ at which the 2 treatments would be of equal net cost. Under most circumstances, treatment of latent tuberculosis infection with isoniazid is cost-saving than treatment with RZ.