Full time adult credential students' instructional preferences at California State University, Long Beach: pedagogy orandragogy?

J Zhejiang Univ Sci. 2004 Mar;5(3):365-70. doi: 10.1007/BF02841024.


This study investigated the instructional preferences of full time adult credential students after they took a live course called Principles of Adult Education at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) in the fall semester of 2002. These full time adult credential students had been working on their adult teaching credentials to meet the competencies specified by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The course introduced students to Andragogy developed by Malcolm Knowles out of the andragogical model developed by Lindeman (1926). The study used Principles of Adult Learning Scales (PALS), advanced by Gary Conti in 1983 to measure instructional preferences. Data were collected from 30 (100% of 30) full time adult credential students enrolled in a live course to determine their instructional preferences of helping adults learn. The results of the study showed in most cases these adult learning professionals taught adult students andragogically; in some cases they taught adult students pedagogically.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • California
  • Consumer Behavior / statistics & numerical data*
  • Credentialing / organization & administration
  • Credentialing / statistics & numerical data*
  • Curriculum / statistics & numerical data*
  • Data Collection
  • Education, Continuing / methods
  • Education, Continuing / statistics & numerical data
  • Faculty / standards*
  • Faculty / statistics & numerical data*
  • Students / statistics & numerical data*
  • Teaching / methods
  • Teaching / statistics & numerical data*
  • Universities