Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use

Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Jan;9(1):106-17. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.01160.x.


Objective: To assess the extent and causes of microbiological contamination of household drinking water between source and point-of-use in developing countries.

Methods: A systematic meta-analysis of 57 studies measuring bacteria counts for source water and stored water in the home to assess how contamination varied between settings.

Results: The bacteriological quality of drinking water significantly declines after collection in many settings. The extent of contamination after water collection varies considerably between settings, but is proportionately greater where faecal and total coliform counts in source water are low.

Conclusions: Policies that aim to improve water quality through source improvements may be compromised by post-collection contamination. Safer household water storage and treatment is recommended to prevent this, together with point-of-use water quality monitoring.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Colony Count, Microbial / methods
  • Developing Countries*
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
  • Escherichia coli / isolation & purification
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Housing / standards*
  • Humans
  • Odds Ratio
  • Water Microbiology*
  • Water Purification
  • Water Supply / standards*