A major pathway for macromolecular exchange in plants involves plasmodesmata (PD), the small pores that connect adjoining cells. This article considers the nature of macromolecular complexes (MCs) that pass through PD and the pathways and mechanisms that guide them to the PD pore. Recent cell-biological studies have identified proteins involved in the directional trafficking of MCs to PD, and yeast two-hybrid studies have isolated novel host proteins that interact with viral movement proteins. Collectively, these studies are yielding important clues in the search for components that compose the plant intercellular MC trafficking pathway. Here, they are placed in the context of a functional model that links the cytoskeleton, chaperones and secretory pathway in the intercellular trafficking of MCs.