We have investigated modulation of voltage-gated calcium channels by nociceptin (ORL1) receptors. In rat DRG neurons and in tsA-201 cells, nociceptin mediated a pronounced inhibition of N-type calcium channels, whereas other calcium channel subtypes were unaffected. In tsA-201 cells, expression of N-type channels with human ORL1 resulted in a voltage-dependent G-protein inhibition of the channel that occurred in the absence of nociceptin, the ORL1 receptor agonist. Consistent with this observation, native N-type channels of small nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons also had tonic inhibition by G proteins. Biochemical characterization showed the existence of an N-type calcium channel-ORL1 receptor signaling complex, which efficiently exposes N-type channels to constitutive ORL1 receptor activity. Calcium channel activity is thus regulated by changes in ORL1 receptor expression, which provides a possible molecular mechanism for the development of tolerance to opioid receptor agonists.